雅思,雅思培训

济南市环球雅思学校:济南 | 烟台 | 泰安 | 青岛 |淄博 |枣庄 |东营 |潍坊 |济宁 |威海 |日照 |莱芜 |临沂 |德州

雅思,雅思培训
济南环球雅思官方网站 > 托福学习专区 > 托福听力 >

托福阅读中的长难句简化原则

2015-08-20 15:41 来源: 环球雅思 作者:网络 浏览
核心提示: 托福阅读中的长难句简化原则

 托福阅读中有着几种题型是每次考试都爱出现的,其中托福阅读试题中的句子简化题便是一个,这种托福阅读题如果不会正确的方法可能会耽误不少时间,下面就来详细介绍一下这个问题。

  句子简化的托福阅读试题可分为两种类型,那解答这种托福阅读题的方法也相应不同:

  第一种是有逻辑关系的句子。那就需要分辨是哪一种逻辑关系,常见的逻辑关系有三种:转折、因果和比较;第二步就是要确定逻辑关系的双方:假如是因果关系就需要确定原因和结果分别是什么。错误选项往往会因果倒置;假如是转折关系就需要确定作者更强调哪一部分信息。错误选项往往把次要信息放在主要的位置上(如but后面);如果是比较关系的话,就需要确定比较的双方,比较的内容和比较的结果。错误选项往往把比较结果弄反。

  有些托福阅读题型句子逻辑和答案逻辑是相对应的,优先用逻辑解题比较简单,可以迅速正确解题,如例1。

  Example 1 TPO5-2 The Origin of the Pacific Island People

  Contrary to the arguments of some that much of the pacific was settled by Polynesians accidentally marooned after being lost and adrift, it seems reasonable that this feat was accomplished by deliberate colonization expeditions that set out fully stocked with food and domesticated plants and animals.

  9. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  ○ Some people have argued that the Pacific was settled by traders who became lost while transporting domesticated plants and animals.

  ○ The original Polynesian settlers were probably marooned on the islands, but they may have been joined later by carefully prepared colonization expeditions.

  ○ Although it seems reasonable to believe that colonization expeditions would set out fully stocked, this is contradicted by much of the evidence.

  ○ The settlement of the Pacific islands was probably intentional and well planned rather than accidental as some people have proposed.

  先看原句,contrary to表示一个与主干部分相反的附加信息,主干部分在逗号之后,后半句说看起来合理的是这个壮举是由精心准备的殖民远征实现的,他们满载食物和动植物。原句中出现了一个表示相反的逻辑关系。选项中只有C和D含有转折关系。C说尽管看起来带着充足的食物殖民远征是合理的,但是这被很多证据反驳。原句中并没有体现用证据来反驳,所以C不正确。选项D中的intentional and well planed对应原句的deliberate,rather than 对应原句开头的contrary to,原文就是否定了意外,支持了精心准备,所以D正确。

  但是有时会发现光靠逻辑去解题,有时不会简单甚至会错误,因为有时逻辑对了但语义不对,但有些逻辑发生了改变但是却是正确选项,如例2所示。

  Example 2 TPO3-3 The Long-Term Stability of Ecosystems

  Many ecologists now think that the relative long-term stability of climax communities comes not from diversity but from the “patchiness” of the environment, an environment that varies from place to place supports more kinds of organisms than an environment that is uniform.

  11.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incurred choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  ○Ecologists now think that the stability of an environment is a result of diversity rather than patchiness.

  ○Patchy environments that vary from place to place do not often have high species diversity.

  ○Uniform environments cannot be climax communities because they do not support as many types of organisms as patchy environments.

  ○A patchy environment is thought to increase stability because it is able to support a wide variety of organisms.

  先看句子,有not…but…表转折,如果先通过逻辑去做题,那就直接把正确的D选项直接排除掉了,A,B,C都有rather than,not,not等,显然这个方法是不行的,所以还得靠主干来做题。

  句子中间逗号隔开,逗号之前是environment,之后是对environment的解释,所以这个句子的重点在前半句,说许多的生态学家现在认为 C群落的长期稳定性不是来源于多样性,而是来源于P环境。因此这句话的核心就是P对稳定性的决定作用。只有D与原句吻合,说P环境可以被认为增加稳定性,因为它可以支持广泛的各种各样的有机体,because后面的原因与原句后半句对应。

  选项A说: 生态学家现在认为稳定性来源于多样性而不是P。与原文相反。

  选项B说: P没有多样性。不对,原文P环境能支持更多的物种,且它没有说P和稳定性的关系,也不对;

  选项C说: 统一的环境不可能是C群落,因为它们不能像P一样支持许多种类的有机体,主语Uniform environments出现在原句后半句,不是句子核心,所以一定不对。

  第二种类型是没有逻辑关系的句子,那就需要确定句子的主干成分。确定句子的主谓宾,修饰部分先不看,根据主干成分去确定选项(正确选项往往是原文的主动变被动、语序颠倒或同义替换)。假如有超过一个选项符合句子的主干成分,再去看句子的修饰成分信息是否一致。错误选项往往是把原文次要信息当作主要信息来讲;或描述错误信息、无中生有信息等。

  Example 3 TPO4-1 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound

  11.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  In addition to finding increase of suitable browse, like huckleberry and vine maple, Arthur Einarsen, longtime game biologist in the Pacific Northwest, found quality of browse in the open areas to be substantially more nutritive.

  ○Arthur Einarsen’s longtime family with the Pacific Northwest ?helped ?him discover areas where deer had an increase in suitable browse.

  ○Arthur Einarsen found that deforested feeding grounds provided deer with more and better food(browse).

  ○Biologist like Einarsen believe it is important ?to find additional open areas with suitable browse for deer to inhabit.

  ○According to Einarsen, huckleberry and vine maple are examples of vegetation that may someday improve the nutrition of deer ?in the open areas of the Pacific Northwest.

  句子无明显逻辑,抓住干,句子有很多逗号,我们要先找到句子主语。开头in addition to是附加信息不会是主语,后面like举例子也不会是主语,再后面AE是一个人名,可能是主语,后面紧接着说生物学家,是AE的同位语,最后一个小分句, found是个动词,是句子谓语,这句话的核心是说AE发现空地上的草更有营养。到选项当中,只有B说 Arthur Einarsen 发现无树的觅食地点能给鹿提供更多更好的食物,这里的better对应原句more nutritive,deforested feeding grounds对应the open areas,因为the 表明前文中有提到,而前一句确实就说了deforested,因此完全对应,本题选B。

  选项A说: AE与西北太平洋的密切关系帮助他发现有更多合适草料的地区。西北太平洋在原句中不是重点,在A里却是主语中的内容,所以A不能选。

  选项C说:像Arthur Einarsen这样的生物学家认为,为鹿寻找额外的开阔并拥有合适嫩草的居住区是很重要的。主语不对,且原句中没强调重要性,C错。

  选项D说:根据Einarsen,越橘和藤槭是典型植被,某日可能可以改善太平洋西北宽阔地区鹿的营养。D的主语huckleberry and vine maple只是原句中like分句中的例子,不是句子重点,所以D错。

  综上所述,句子简化题,先看句子,有逻辑优先根据逻辑来看,但是不一定逻辑正确就是正确选项,还得结合内容;无逻辑直接找主干,带着主干信息,然后去选项中找答案。

  可以看出这种托福阅读试题如果掌握了正确的方法解决起来就简单多了,每个托福阅读题都有自己的方法,所以希望大家能认真对待,争取在托福阅读上有所突破。

始终低于同行业5%-10%的收费标准!
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
免费咨询热线:0531-86927699      QQ438157221
总部:济南泺源大街22号中银大厦18层
济南:泉城路齐鲁国际大厦C10-18室
烟台:南大街213号市长大厦1618室
泰安:财源大街44号财源大厦601室

(编辑:admin)
山东培训高分基地
无觅相关文章插件,快速提升流量